Conservation treatment documentation is an important aspect of the conservation activity. It consists of written records supplemented by digital photographs taken before, during and after the conservation treatment of an object. Conservation treatment documentation describes the object’s condition, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator, treatments performed and specifies materials used on the object. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator or conservator.

Before and after conservation treatment each object is thoroughly photographed to record its condition and all visible damage and repairs; these photographs provide important documentation on the nature and outcome of the work. Additional photographs are taken during treatment, particularly before inpainting, ingilding or other forms of compensation.  To record damage as accurately as possible, photographs may be taken in different visible light techniques  such as reflected, raking or transmitted. Special lighting such as ultra-violet, infrared and x-ray may be used to produce images that reveal details not visible to the naked eye.  
Important part of the documentation is the technical examination report which contains the results of the scientific analysis carried out on the object. The scientific analysis of object is crucial in understanding an object's condition, technology of manufacture, history and authenticity.  The results of the examination can be critical for designing an appropriate conservation treatment.